Where to start…
1) I’m confused as to where you got the idea that red and blue can’t both be in an outfit, given that the first “inspiration” outfit you posted uses both. In any event, ditch those misconceptions. Blue and green/blue and red/honestly, most two-color combinations are going to be fine together.
2) Watching some episodes of What Not To Wear might be a good place for you to start. It’ll give you some basic concepts and building blocks for creating succesful, well thought-out outfits.
3a) In general, when putting together an outfit, one or two items should be the “star(s)” and the rest should be supporting cast. It’s when you try to combine a blouse, pants, shoes, and bag that are all attention-grabbing (patterned/brightly colored/retro/etc) into a single outfit that you really get into trouble. The eye doesn’t know where to look, and chances are that not everything will go together. So find one piece (say, a blue and white polka-dot dress) that you love and create an outfit around it. Pick a complementary color to pair with it–for example, yellow shoes and a yellow clutch. Keep any other accessories neutral. If you match all of your accessories to your color scheme (for instance, by wearing a yellow cardigan, yellow earrings, bracelet, and necklace as well) the effect will be too costume-y. But a simple gold necklace or some pearl earrings and a white cardigan would be lovely.
3b) Let’s take another example. Say you find a bright purple gauzy/drapey top that you love. If you wear it with a green flowing skirt the effect will be blindingly bright and kind of hippie-ish–too much swaying fabric. But pair it with a fitted bottom in a neutral (i.e., goes with anything) color–dark wash jeans/gray pencil skirt/black trousers/white slacks–and it’ll look much more deliberate and flattering. Your bottom piece and accessories determine what sort of outfit this is: paired with slacks/a pencil skirt, a blazer, and ankle boots or pumps, it looks very professional. With strappy metalic shoes and skinny jeans, it’s going-out wear. The key with really bright colors is to stick to neutrals and metallics when accessorizing, or, if you’re feeling more daring, pick 1-2 other colors of similar intensity/saturation and use them in a very limited way. So if you tone down the overall look with, say, dark jeans and a brown leather jacket, you could use a bright yellow (or teal, or blue…whatever you think looks good) handbag or bracelet or pair of shoes to add a secondary visual accent.
4) Go shopping and try lots of stuff on to figure out what works on your body and is most flattering (cuts and colors). Try to find versatile pieces that can go with lots of different things (a couple of great pairs of pants, skirts, jackets, cardigans, shoes, bags) as well as some more special/exciting pieces that you really love (bolder prints, patterns, colors, cuts). If you don’t have a good proportion of “supporting actors” and “stars” in your wardrobe, it’s going to be hard for you to create outfits. Almost every piece in your wardrobe should work with more than one other item.
5) Given your taste in clothing, you should definitely be looking at http://www.modcloth.com/