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Ai, ai, ai. Let’s untangle this mess.
The only reason you tag “Jr.” or “Junior” onto someone’s name, is to differentiate him from his father. If the father does not also use the title “Doctor” or “Dr.” then that title is sufficient and you would not also use Jr. If the father is also a doctor, then you do need to use Jr.
A gentleman is never given the label “Sr.”; that is used only by a widow to differentiate herself from her daughter-in-law. As long as Mr John Smith is alive, his son is Mr John Smith Jr. and his grandson is Mr John Smith III. (His nephew is Mr John Smith II, rather than Jr., because he is not in a direct line of descent.) His wife is Mrs John Smith, and his daughter-in-law is Mrs John Smith Jr.
When the gentleman dies, his son drops the Jr and becomes just Mr John Smith. His grandson drops the III and takes Jr. instead. His nephew stays Mr John Smith II. Since the daughter-in-law takes her name from her husband, she is now Mrs John Smith. Where does this leave the gentleman’s widow? She was also Mrs John Smith. Now she becomes Mrs John Smith Sr.
I know, I know: television has accustomed us to using “the Third” as a claim to old-family-Boston snobbery, through the example of Doctor Charles Emmerson Winchester the Third, with “the Third” kept for its snob-appeal even after the father and grandfather die. It gives its holder the nice superior feeling of being named like an English king. But it is not proper usage and, like most pretention, is in bad taste. Hollywood is a poor arbiter of proper social form.
“Junior” only becomes part of a legal name when it is used as an actual second or third (or fourth) name on the birth certificate. That’s not an example of the “title” being part of a legal name, but of a person being given an odd — and potentially inappropriate — given name. But social names do not incorporate the entire legal name, and follow different rules. Of the two, the social rules are far and away the more complex.
Now, you didn’t ask about this, but if you are inviting these two adult men as individuals, rather than as a social unit, they really should each get his own invitation. If you are truly planning on sending one invitation to the two of them, then please put their names on two separate lines to avoid implying that they are in a marital, or equivalent-to-married, relationship:
Mr John Smith
Dr John Smith