Well its not just a Mass in Latin. You can say the Ordinary form of the Mass (also sometimes called the Novus Ordo) in Latin as well, as the missal and the ordinary of the Mass were written in Latin.
The Traditional Latin Mass is the form of the Mass as it was celebrated from 1570 to 1962 in every country. In response to the Second Vatican Council, the Mass was constantly redone till we came out with a completely new missal in 1970 (which with some slight revisions, is what we use today.)
The main differences I would say is that the priest stands facing the altar rather than the people. Everyone’s orentation is directed in prayer at the tabernacle and the priest basically leads everyone in prayer. The altar servers have a more prominant role than they do in the newer Mass. They have responses. The laity (people in the pews) have no responses, though often the laity today get confused and like to try to say the responses of the altar servers such as “et cum spiritu tuo.” and “Kyrie Elison”. This leads the people to a more devotional sort of worship where they can either follow along with a translation or make their own private devotionals. What I did is I learned how to identify the different parts of the Mass so that I would know which prayer he was on. I then use my husband’s grandmother’s prayer book which has prayers and meditations for different parts of the Mass. For instance, during the Pater Noster (the Our Father), my book has a long in depth of the meaning of the words of the our father to help us understand what we’re really praying.
The prayers include more petitions to the saints and have a bit more theological depth to them. There are also 3 forms of the Latin Mass: the low Mass, the High Mass and the Solemn High Mass. It has very strict rubrics unlike the newer Mass.
A trend that is happening in some parishes is to impliment aspects of the old Mass into the new Mass. For instance Georgian chant rather than folk songs. Some priests are starting to face the altar rather than to stand behind it. There is also an emerging turn toward using more of the Latin and Greek during parts of the Mass: The gloria, the Sanctus (instead of “Holy, Holy, Holy Lord”, you sing “Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dominus Deo Sabaoth…”, the Kyrie (Lord have mercy), the Agnus Dei (Lamb of God). We’ll see what happens.
The reform called for more lay participation, but unforunately people think participation means having a vocal response, when particpation in the Mass means delving deeper into prayer rather than sitting bored in your pew. I mean, you can be bored whether or not the Mass is in your language or not. I’m a very orthodox Catholic. I am not a traditionalist that rejects Vatican II or thinks the new Mass is invalid. What I found was that there were elements of the old Mass that are like gold that we threw out. We got more hooked on change for the sake of change rather than polishing the wealth we already had. The Latin Mass taught me how to participate more fully in my heart with the new Mass. Its also made me more senstive to what works in the Mass for participation and what doesn’t. The more you try to make the Mass entertaining, the more you take away from the atmosmphere needed for prayer and contemplation. We can’t respond to people’s bordom by entertaining them. We have to help them to realize that bordom stems from a lack of internal participation. And unforunately when you insert entertainment, it actually hinders internal participation.
Ok so I ranted a bit. Sorry.